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Subsurface Exploration Using the Standard Penetration Test and the Cone Penetrometer Test
  • Subsurface Exploration Using the Standard Penetration Test and the Cone Penetrometer Test
  • Subsurface Exploration Using the Standard Penetration Test and the Cone Penetrometer Test

Subsurface Exploration Using the Standard Penetration Test and the Cone Penetrometer Test

Place of Origin CHINA
Brand Name ROSCHEN
Certification ISO
Model Number 2 INCH
Product Details
China SPT Hammer
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split tube sampler


soil sampling equipment

Payment & Shipping Terms
Minimum Order Quantity
1 set
Packaging Details
Poly wooden box
Supply Ability
100000 pcs
Product Description

Subsurface Exploration Using the Standard Penetration Test and the Cone Penetrometer Test


Significance and Use

This test method provides a disturbed soil sample for moisture content determination, for identification and classification (Practices D 2487 and D 2488) purposes, and for laboratory tests appropriate for soil obtained from a sampler that will produce large shear strain disturbance in the sample such as Test Methods D 854, D 2216, and D 6913. Soil deposits containing gravels, cobbles, or boulders typically result in penetration refusal and damage to the equipment.

This test method provides a disturbed soil sample for moisture content determination and laboratory identification. Sample quality is generally not suitable for advanced laboratory testing for engineering properties. The process of driving the sampler will cause disturbance of the soil and change the engineering properties. Use of the thin wall tube sampler (Practice D 1587) may result in less disturbance in soft soils. Coring techniques may result in less disturbance than SPT sampling for harder soils, but it is not always the case, that is, some cemented soils may become loosened by water action during coring; see Practice D 6151, and Guide D 6169.

This test method is used extensively in a great variety of geotechnical exploration projects. Many local correlations and widely published correlations which relate blow count, or N-value, and the engineering behavior of earthworks and foundations are available. For evaluating the liquefaction potential of sands during an earthquake event, the N-value should be normalized to a standard overburden stress level. Practice D 6066 provides methods to obtain a record of normalized resistance of sands to the penetration of a standard sampler driven by a standard energy. The penetration resistance is adjusted to drill rod energy ratio of 60 % by using a hammer system with either an estimated energy delivery or directly measuring drill rod stress wave energy using Test Method D 4633.

Note 1—The reliability of data and interpretations generated by this practice is dependent on the competence of the personnel performing it and the suitability of the equipment and facilities used. Agencies that meet the criteria of Practice D 3740 generally are considered capable of competent testing. Users of this practice are cautioned that compliance with Practice D 3740 does not assure reliable testing. Reliable testing depends on several factors and Practice D 3740 provides a means of evaluating some of these factors. Practice D 3740 was developed for agencies engaged in the testing, inspection, or both, of soils and rock. As such, it is not totally applicable to agencies performing this practice. Users of this test method should recognize that the framework of Practice D 3740 is appropriate for evaluating the quality of an agency performing this test method. Currently, there is no known qualifying national authority that inspects agencies that perform this test method.


1. Scope

1.1 This test method describes the procedure, generally known as the Standard Penetration Test (SPT), for driving a split-barrel sampler to obtain a representative disturbed soil sample for identification purposes, and measure the resistance of the soil to penetration of the sampler. Another method (Test Method D 3550) to drive a split-barrel sampler to obtain a representative soil sample is available but the hammer energy is not standardized.

1.2 Practice D 6066 gives a guide to determining the normalized penetration resistance of sands for energy adjustments of N-value to a constant energy level for evaluating liquefaction potential.

1.3 Test results and identification information are used to estimate subsurface conditions for foundation design.

1.4 Penetration resistance testing is typically performed at 5-foot depth intervals or when a significant change of materials is observed during drilling, unless otherwise specified.

1.5 This test method is limited to use in nonlithified soils and soils whose maximum particle size is approximately less than one-half of the sampler diameter.

1.6 This test method involves use of rotary drilling equipment (Guide D 5783, Practice D 6151). Other drilling and sampling procedures (Guide D 6286, Guide D 6169) are available and may be more appropriate. Considerations for hand driving or shallow sampling without boreholes are not addressed. Subsurface investigations should be recorded in accordance with Practice D 5434. Samples should be preserved and transported in accordance with Practice D 4220 using Group B. Soil samples should be identified by group name and symbol in accordance with Practice D 2488.

1.7 All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in Practice D 6026, unless superseded by this test method.

1.8 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard, except as noted below. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units, which are provided for information only and are not considered standard.

1.8.1 The gravitational system of inch-pound units is used when dealing with inch-pound units. In this system, the pound (lbf) represents a unit of force (weight), while the unit for mass is slugs.

1.9 Penetration resistance measurements often will involve safety planning, administration, and documentation. This test method does not purport to address all aspects of exploration and site safety. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Performance of the test usually involves use of a drill rig; therefore, safety requirements as outlined in applicable safety standards (for example, OSHA regulations, NDA Drilling Safety Guide, drilling safety manuals, and other applicable state and local regulations) must be observed. 

2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately)

ASTM Standards

D653 Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids

D854 Test Methods for Specific Gravity of Soil Solids by Water Pycnometer

D1587 Practice for Thin-Walled Tube Sampling of Fine-Grained Soils for Geotechnical Purposes

D2216 Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass

D2487 Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)

D2488 Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)

D3550 Practice for Thick Wall, Ring-Lined, Split Barrel, Drive Sampling of Soils

D3740 Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction

D4220 Practices for Preserving and Transporting Soil Samples

D4633 Test Method for Energy Measurement for Dynamic Penetrometers

D5434 Guide for Field Logging of Subsurface Explorations of Soil and Rock

D5783 Guide for Use of Direct Rotary Drilling with Water-Based Drilling Fluid for Geoenvironmental Exploration and the Installation of Subsurface Water-Quality Monitoring Devices

D6026 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data

D6066 Practice for Determining the Normalized Penetration Resistance of Sands for Evaluation of Liquefaction Potential

D6151 Practice for Using Hollow-Stem Augers for Geotechnical Exploration and Soil Sampling

D6169 Guide for Selection of Soil and Rock Sampling Devices Used With Drill Rigs for Environmental Investigations

D6286 Guide for Selection of Drilling Methods for Environmental Site Characterization

D6913 Test Methods for Particle-Size Distribution (Gradation) of Soils Using Sieve Analysis



Penetration Resistance - Physical Properties - Samplers - Soil And Rocks Sampling - Soil Sampling - Soils - Split Barrel Samplers - Standard Penetration Test

ICS Code

ICS Number Code 93.020 (Earth works. Excavations. Foundation construction. Underground works)


UNSPSC Code 11111501(Soil); 41113821(Soil penetration tester)


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Subsurface Exploration Using the Standard Penetration Test and the Cone Penetrometer Test
Subsurface Exploration Using the Standard Penetration Test
Site Exploration, Site Characterization, Subsurface Exploration, Drilling, Standard Penetration Test, Cone Penetrometer

The Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and Cone Penetrometer Test (CPT) have become industry standards for subsurface geotechnical investigations using small diameter (<8-in. [20-cm]) borings and soundings. Both procedures have evolved over a period of 100 and 70 years, respectively, and have been adopted as ASTM standards. Each procedure has certain advantages over the other, but both can elicit incorrect data under particular subsurface conditions that are often overlooked, depending on the experience of field personnel operating or logging the tests. This paper seeks to explain the operative assumptions employed in both procedures, highlight the various corrections that are commonly employed, and warn the reader of common errors in interpretation.
The article concludes by stating that, under most conditions, the joint employment of SPT and CPT together has the greatest potential for characterizing sites correctly.

ASTM D1586 - 11
Standard Test Method for Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and Split-Barrel Sampling of Soils


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